Ancient Hellenic Theology 101

Welcome to our basic Hellenic educational outlet for ancient Greek worshipers and those who wish to learn more about ancient Greek spirituality. This course is written and taught by Priest Christopher. Our theology is vast, as we are an extremely polytheistic people. Our amazingly plural spirituality opens to us the possibility of learning from and connecting with Divinity on a great multitude of levels. It should be remembered that all of the Gods, Spirits, Heroes, Deified Mortals and the Ancestors are important and serve a purpose. We worship and engage in relationship with all. 

Think of the God, Spirit, Hero, Deified Mortal and Ancestor as different levels of Divinity and Ascension. The God being the highest, the Spirit second, Hero third, and so forth. For example, Artemis the Goddess of forests, the Spirits of the forest who protect it and serve Her, the Heroes of the hunt and wilderness who were mortal and help us connect with the Artemis and the Spirits, the Deified Mortal who teaches us the knowledge of the forests, and the Ancestor who made a way through the forest so we could have a path to walk to it all. It should be noted that Deified Mortals are Gods as well, and hence aren't actually mortal anymore. However, we call them Deified Mortals because they came from mortality. In some cases, mortal Heroes also became Gods, and thus they can be considered Deified Mortals by definition. For instance, Herakles can be called a Hero, God, and a Deified Mortal. 

The Gods and Higher Powers are everywhere and in all things. They are, therefore, never absent from anything we do. There is a reason the ancient Hellenes did not have a word for religion, because life and religion were the same. There was no need to have a term separating it from everything else. Before us, above us, beneath us, and in the heavens beyond, Divinity is in it all. 

Greece and Hellas
It should first be noted that while we tend to use Greek and Hellenic interchangeably today, the ancients did not call the land Greece. In fact, they didn't even consider themselves one people. Their nationalities and their countries were contingent upon their City States. For example, people from Athens would call themselves Athenians, not Greeks. The word Hellas is the general term for all of the land known today as Greece, and Hellene would be the more accurate term for someone from Hellas. Hellene was given to the Greek people, however, much later in history by the Roman Emperor Julian, who fought to restore the old religions from Christian destruction. In far older times such as those of Homer, Greeks or Hellenes are called by other names, such as Achaeans and Argives, once again noting their specific place of origin in the Greek world. 

Orthodoxy and Orthopraxy
Most mainstream religions today are based on orthodoxy, that is, a correct belief system. However, Hellenic religion was and is not largely concerned with what or how someone believes. We are more focused on orthopraxy, meaning a correct practice, in religion and life. We believe the Gods care more about how we live, and that our spirituality is impacted more by how we practice, than by what we personally believe. Around the ancient Greek world, each City had their own myths and practices. The ancient Greeks weren't even against the admission of other cultures into their own so long as what was admitted did not contradict the Greek worldviews. Because of our focus on orthopraxy instead of orthodoxy, Hellenism welcomes in a wide range of people from all walks of life. 

Gods
The Dodekatheon, meaning The Twelve Gods, are our highest Gods, also known as The Olympians, after the place in the Universe where they live, Mount Olympos:

Zeus - King of all Gods. God of the sky, weather, mankind, the universe, and of hospitality.
Hera (aka HERE) - Queen of all Gods and wife of Zeus. Goddess of women and marriage.
Aphrodite (aka Afroditi) - Goddess of love, beauty, sex, pleasure, fertility and the sea.
Poseidon - God of the sea, rivers, wells, and earthquakes.
Demeter (aka Demetra) - Goddess of agriculture, fields, crops, seasons and food.
Artemis - Goddess of the hunt, forests, wildlife, wilderness, childbirth and the moon.
Apollon - God of light, music, prophecy, healing and the sun.
Athena (aka Athene) - Goddess of wisdom, war, democracy and civilization.
Hephaistos - God of fire, forge and universal creation.
Ares - God of war and battle.
Hermes - Messenger of the Gods. God of travel, business and commerce. 
Dionysos (aka Dionysus) God of wine, nature, joy, ecstasy and life.

Some may consider Hestia to be the 12th Olympian and not Dionysos. Hestia is the Goddess of the home, hearth and family. No matter which Olympian alignment one subscribes to, however, Hestia remains an extremely important and valued Goddess in Hellenic religion.

Meanings of the Names
Each name has a meaning behind it, just as human names mean something beneath the surface, often either more simplistic or wide in range. The meanings of the names of the Gods often times do not have only one translation, however. Sources from ancient Greek to modern, regularly list more than one meaning or several possibilities.

Zeus - Sky Father, Shining.
Hera - Queen, Beloved.
Aphrodite - Foam-Born, She Who Lives Delicately.
Poseidon - Husband of the Earth, Lord of the Earth.
Demeter - Mother, Barley Mother.
Artemis - Great, Holy, Excellent.
Apollon - Ever-Shooting, Destroyer, Hunter.
Athena - Divine Intelligence, She Who Knows Many Things.
Hephaistos - Fire-Working (otherwise unknown).
Hermes - Interpreter, Boundary Marker, Lucky.
Ares - Battle, Ruin.
Dionysos - He Of The Tree, Of Zeus.
Hestia - Hearth, Fireside.

Other Names and Meanings
Haides - Unseen. 
Herakles - Glory of Hera.

Epithets of the Gods
The Epithets of the Gods are very important to helping us understand them, and so that we will know the best circumstances in which to invoke them, and even to simply help us invoke the Deity in general by giving more identification.

Epithets are titles and functions that one has. For instance, you may be a husband, father, and brother. You fulfill all 3 of these functions as the same person, and you even manifest differently in each one. Gods even carried the names of the places in which they were worshiped, such as Athena Parthenos referring to the Parthenon of Athens, or Artemis of Ephesus referring to Her grand temple in Asia Minor. It wouldn't be outlandish today to call Athena by the name Athena Nashville when visiting Her grand replica temple in Tennessee. Or to put a Greek spin on it, Athena Nashvilleanos. Sometimes, entire temples or places of worship were built for one particular Epithet, such as the temple of Athena Nike (Athena of Victory) on the Akropolis in Athens.

Within Hellenic religion, it is also entirely possible for a practitioner to have new epithets for the Gods in their own personal worship using Personal Gnosis. For example, someone who had their premature child saved by Artemis might refer to Her as Artemis of the NICU modernly, or generally, Artemis Who Saves The Premature. Understanding the ancient Epithets of the Gods will also help one slightly in the way of learning Hellenic language. Some of the Epithets, however, remain a mystery in the sense that we have no translation for them.

Zeus
Ombrios (of the Rain).
Keraunios (of the Thunderbolt).
Astrapaios (of the Lightning).
Kataibates (Descending).
Labrandeus (Furious, Raging).
Ikamios (of Moisture).
Konios (of the Dust).
Maimaktes (Boisterous).
Euenemos (of Fair Winds).
Limenoskopos (of Sea-Havens).
Basileus (King).
Hypatos (Most High).
Ktesios (of the Home's Wealth).
Herkeios (of the Boundaries).
Boulaios (of the Council).
Amboulios (Counselor).
Teleios (of Marriage Rites).
Moiragetes (Leader of the Fates).
Klarios (of the Lots).
Semaleos (Giver of Signs).
Kosmetes (Orderer).
Theos Agathos (the Good God).
Epidotes (Giver of Good).
Plousios (of Wealth).
Philios (of Friendship).
Xenios (of Hospitality and Strangers).
Hikesios (of Suppliants).
Phyxios (of Refuge).
Palamnaios (Punisher of Murderers).
Katharsios (of Ritual Purification).
Prostropaios (Turner of Pollution).
Apemios (Averter of Ills).
Soter (Savior).
Meilikhios (Gracious and Merciful).
Panellenios (of All the Greeks).
Laoites (of the People).
Poleius (of the City-State).
Sosipolis (City-Savior).
Eleutherios (of Freedom).
Khrysaoreus (of the Golden Sword).
Stratios (Warlike).
Sthenios (of Strength).
Tropaios (Turns the Enemy).
Phyxios (Banishes).
https://theoi.com/cult/zeustitles.html

Hera
Pais (Girl).
Nympheuomene (Bethrothed Bride).
Teleia (Woman).
Khera (Widow).
Aphrodite (of Aphrodite).
Gamelia (of Marriage).
Autorote (Unbulled).
Zugia (Yoked).
Heniokhe (of the Chariot).
Antheia (of the Flowers).
Argoia (of the Argo).
Hyperkheiria (Whose Hand is Above).
Akraie (of the Heights).
Prodromia (of the Pioneer).
https://www.theoi.com/cult/heracult2.html

Aphrodite
Ourania (Heavenly).
Pandemos (Common to All People).
Epistrophia (She Who Turns to Love).
Apostrophia (Averter of Unlawful Desires).
Kataskopia (Spying).
Psithyristes (Whispering).
Praxis (Action).
Melainis (of Night).
Symmakhia (Ally in Love).
Apatouros (Deceptive).
Nymphia (Bridal).
Migontis (Marital Union).
Doritis (Bountiful).
Hera (of Hera).
Morpho (of Shapely Form).
Ambologera (Postponer of Old Age).
Nikephoros (Bringer of Victory).
Areia (of Ares).
Hoplismene (Armed).
Euploia (Fair Voyage).
Pontia (of the Sea).
Limenia (of the Harbor).
Xenia (of the Foreigner).
Kepois (of the Gardens).
Anadyomene (Risen from the Sea).
Philommeides (Laughter-Loving).
Philommedes (Genital-Loving).
Aphrogeneia (Foam-Born).
Khrysee (Golden).
Dia (Divine, Shining).
Dios Thugater (Daughter of Zeus).
Pothon Meter (Mother of Desire).
Eustephanos (Richly-Crowned).
https://www.theoi.com/cult/aphroditetitles.html

Poseidon
Basileus (King).
Pelagaios (of the Sea or Marine).
Aigaion (of the Aegean).
Prosklystios (Who Dashes Against).
Asphalios (Secures Safe Voyage).
Epoptes (Overseer).
Gaieokhos (Holder of the Earth).
Ennosigaios (Shaker of the Earth).
Hippios (of the Horses).
Phytalmios (Plant-Nurturer).
Patros (Ancestral Father).
Genethlios (of the Kindred).
Domatites (of the House).
Laoites (of the People).
Helikonios (of Helicon).
https://www.theoi.com/cult/poseidoncult2.html

Demeter
Kthonia (of the Earth).
Lhloe (Green).
Epogmie (of the Furrows).
Anesidora (She Who Sends Forth Gifts).
Ploutodoteira (Giver of Wealth).
Karpophoros (Bearer of Fruit).
Thermasia (Warmth).
Megala Thea (Great Goddess).
Megala Meter (Great Mother).
Thesmophoros (Bringer of Law).
Thesmia (of the Laws).
Prostasia (Leader).
Panakhaia (of all the Greeks).
Europe (of Europe).
Eleusinia (of Eleusis).
Pron (of the Headland).
Pylaie (of the Gates).
Erinys (Fury).
Melaina (The Black).
Lousie (Purifying).
Kabeiraie (of the Kabeiroi).
Deo (of the Earth).
Horephoros (Bringer of the Seasons).
Polyphorbos (All-Nourishing).
Aglaokarpos (Giver of Goodly Fruit).
Aglaodoros (Bestower of Splendid Gifts).
Kallistephanos (Beautiful Crowned).
Eustephanos (Lovely Crowned).
Eukomos (Lovely Haired).
Xanthe (Golden Haired).
Kyanopeplos (Dark Veiled).
Kallisphyros (Beautiful, Trim-Ankled).
Khrysaoros (of the Golden Blade).
Dia Thea (Bright Goddess).
Semne (Holy).
Hagne (Pure).
Anassa (Queen).
Potnia Theaon (Queen Among Goddesses).
Kydre Thea (Glorious, Noble Goddess).
Rhea eukomos thugater (Daughter of rich-haired Rhea).
Mysteria (Mysteries).
Soteira (Savior).
Daeira (Knowing One).
Praxidike (Exacter of Justice).
Herkyna (of Stone Enclosure).
Protogone (First Born).
https://www.theoi.com/cult/demetertitles.html

Artemis
Agrotere (of the Hunt, Huntress).
Diktynnaia (of the Hunting Nets).
Pheraia (of the Beasts).
Elaphiaia (of the Deer).
Daphnaie (of the Laurel Tree).
Kedreatis (of the Cedar Tree).
Karyai (of the Walnut Tree).
Limnaie (of the Lake).
Heleia (of the Marshes).
Eurynome (of Broad Pastures).
Lykeie (of the Wolves).
Leukophruene (of the White Bird).
Paidotrophos (Nurse of Children).
Philomeirax (Friend of Young Girls).
Orsilokhia (Helper of Childbirth).
Selasphoros (Light Bringer).
Soteira (Savior).
Hemerasia (She Who Soothes).
Hymnie (of the Hymns).
Hegemone (Leader of Dance).
Ariste (Best, Excellent).
Eukleia (of Good Repute).
Kalliste (Very Beautiful).
Patroia (of the Ancestral Fathers).
Basileis (Royal Princess).
Hiereia (Priestess).
Protothronie (of the First Throne).
Propylaie (of the Gate).
Orthia (of the Steep).
Agoraia (of the Marketplace).
Lygodesme (Willow-Bound).
Astrateia (Stayed the Advance).
Heurippa (Horse-Finder).
Peitho (Persuasive).
Pyronia (of the Fire).
Kolainis (Hornless).
Hekaerge (Worker From Afar).
Iokheaira (of Showering Arrows).
Khryselakatos (of the Golden Distaff).
Khrysalakatos (With Shafts of Gold).
Theroskopos (Hunter of Wild Beasts).
Elaphebolos (Deer-Shooting).
Khrysenios (of the Golden Reins).
Khrysothronos (of the Golden Throne).
Eustephanos (Sweet-Garlanded).
Keladeinos (Strong-Voiced).
Keladeine (Lady of Clamours).
Hagne (Chaste).
Aidoios Parthenos (Revered Virgin).
Prostateria (Guardian).
https://www.theoi.com/cult/artemistitles.html

Apollon
Thearios (of the Oracle).
Proopsios (Foreseeing).
Klerios (Distributing by Lot).
Kledones (Omen in Words and Sounds).
Hekatos (Shooter From Afar).
Agraios (of the Hunt).
Mousegetes (Leader of the Muses).
Oulios (of Sound Health).
Paian (Healer).
Akesios (of Healing).
Alexikakos (Averter of Evil).
Epikourios (Succouring, Helping).
Boedromios (Rescuer).
Lykios (of the Wolves).
Smintheios (of the Mice).
Parnopios (of the Locusts).
Erythibios (of Mildew).
Delphinios (of the Dolphin).
Aktios (of the Foreshore).
Theoxenios (God of Foreigners).
Argyieus (of the Streets).
Prostaterios (Standing Before the Entrance).
Pythios (Pythian).
Delphios (of Delphi).
Deiradiotes (of the Ridge).
Platanistios (of the Plane-Trees).
Meliai (of the Ash-Trees).
Spodios (of Altar Ashes).
Aktaios (of the Coast).
Latoios (Son of Leto).
Pythios (of the Python).
Dionysodotes (Bestower of Dionysos).
Patroios (of the Ancestral Fathers).
Karneios (of the Kornel-Tree).
Thermios (of Lupine Flowers).
Aigletos (Shining).
Dekatephoros (Bringer of Tithes).
Horios (of Boundaries).
https://www.theoi.com/cult/apollontitles.html

Athena
Nike (Victory).
Areia (Warlike).
Salpinx (War-Trumpet).
Leitis (Distributor of Booty).
Zosteria (Girder and Armor).
Sthenias (of Strength).
Polemedokos (War-Sustaining).
Hippia (of the Horses).
Khalinitis (Bridler of Horses).
Eryma (Defender).
Soteira (Savior).
Alalkomeneis (Protectress).
Polias (of the City).
Polioukhos (City-Protectress).
Poliatis (Keeper of the City).
Promakhorma (Champion of the Anchorage).
Ergane (Worker).
Paionia (Healer).
Hygeia (of Good Health).
Alea (of Refuge).
Amboulia (Counsellor).
Pronoia (Foresight).
Apatouria (of Deception - deceiving the enemy).
Makhanitis (Planner).
Ophthalmitis (of the Eyes).
Oxyderkes (Sharp-Sighted).
Koryphasia (of the Head).
Koryphagenes (Born of the Head).
Parthenos (Virgin).
Korie (Maiden).
Xenia (of Hospitality).
Agoraia (of the Marketplace).
Khalkioikon (of the Bronze House).
Aithyia (of the Gannet Colony).
Pronaia (of the Fore-Temple).
Kissaia (of the Growing Ivy).
Kyparissia (of the Cypress Grove).
Kranaies (of Cornel-Wood).
Axiopoinos (Returning Vengeance).
Anemotis (of the Winds).
Keleutheia (of the Road).
Asia (of Asia Minor).
Kolokasia (of the Edible Tubers).
Alektor (Rooster).
Meter (Mother).
Gigantoleteira (Destroyer of Giants).
Gorgolaphas (Gorgon-Crested).
https://www.theoi.com/cult/athenatitles.html
Hephaistos
Klytos (Famed and Glorious).
Periklytos (Very Famous).
Klytotekhnes (Famed Worker).
Polytekhnes (of Many Crafts).
Polyphron (Inventive).
Polymetis (Resourceful).
Aithaloeis Theos (Sooty God).
Khalkeus (Copper-Smith).
https://www.theoi.com/cult/hephaistoscult.html

Ares
Theritas (Beastly).
Hippios (of the Horses).
Aphneios (Abundant).
Gynaikothoinas (Feasted by Women).
Miaiphonos (Bloody).
Laossoos (He Who Rallies Men).
Brotoloigos (Manslaughtering).
Khalkeos (of the Bronze).
Teikhesipletes (Stormer of Cities).
Aatos Polemoio (Insatiate of Fighting).
Enkhespalos (Spear-Brandishing).
Rhinotoros (Flesh-Piercing).
Polemistes Talaurinos (He Who Fights Under the Shield's Guard).
Thoos (Swift).
Thouros (Furious).
Obrimos (Mighty).
Deinos (Fearsome).
Enyalios (Warlike).
Khrysopelex (of the Golden Helm).
Themis (of Themis).
Hermes
Epimelios (Keeper of the Flocks).
Kriophoros (Ram-Bearer).
Agoraios (of the Marketplace).
Dolios (of Crafts and Wiles).
Enagonios (of the Games).
Promakhos (Champion).
Hermeneutes (Interpreter and Translator).
Trikephalos (of the Road Intersections).
Propylaios (of the Gateway).
Pronaos (of the Fore-Temple).
Argeiphontes (Slayer of Argos).
Kyllenios (of Mount Cyllene).
Maiados Huios (Son of Maia).
Diaktoros (Guide).
Athanatos Diaktoros (Immortal Guide).
Angelos Athanaton (Messenger of the Gods).
Angelos Makaron (Messenger of the Blessed).
Khrysorrhapis (of the Golden Wand).
Klepsiphron (Dissembler).
Mekhaniotes (Trickster).
Pheletes (Rustler).
Arkhos Pheleteon (Leader of Robbers).
Poikilometes (of Various Wiles).
Polytropos (Many-Turning).
Poneomenos (Busy One).
Bouphonos (Slayer of Oxen).
Oiopolos (Shepherd).
Dais Hetairos (Comrade of the Feast).
Kharidotes (Giver of Joy).
Kharmophron (Glad-Hearted).
Dotor Eaon (Giver of Good Things).
Akaketa (Gracious).
Euskopos (Keen-Sighted).
Eriounes (Luck-Bringing).
Kydimos (Glorious).
Krateros (Strong).
Masterios (of Searchers).
https://www.theoi.com/cult/hermestitles.html
Dionysos
Bakkhos (of Bacchic Frenzy).
Euaster (of Ritual Cry).
Bromios (Noisy).
Mainoles (Raging).
Nyktelios (of the Night).
Lampteros (of the Torches).
Hestios (of the Feast).
Kolotes (Spotted).
Auxites (Giver of Increase).
Phallen (of the Phallus).
Androgynos (Sexually).
Phelon (Luxuriant).
Staphylites (of the Grape).
Omphakites (of the Unripe Grape).
Lenaios (of the Wine-Press).
Theoinos (God of Wine).
Agathos Daimon (Good Spirit).
Protrygaios (First of the Vintage).
Oinops (Wine-Dark).
Akratophoros (Bringer of Mixed Wine).
Kissios (of the Ivy).
Kittophoros (Ivy-Bearer).
Anthion (of the Flowers).
Kistophoros (Basket-Bearer).
Erebinthinos (of the Chickpea).
Dimetor (Twice-Born).
Eiraphiotes (Insewn).
Aigobolos (Goat-Slayer)
Melanaigis (Dark Aegis).
Taurophagos (Bull-Eater).
Bouphagos (Cow-Eater).
Anthroporraistos (Man-Slayer).
Lysios (of Release).
Eleuthereus (of Liberation).
Psilax (Uplifted).
Saotes (Savior).
Patroios (Paternal).
Aisymnetes (Dictator).
Polites (Citizen).
Agyieus (Protector of the Streets).
Mystes (of the Mysteries).
Khthonios (of the Earth).
Zagreus (Orphic).
Zabazios (Phrygian).
Melpomenos (Singer of Plays).
Kadmos (of Kadmos the Hero).
Kolonates (of the Knoll).
Limnaios (of the Marsh).
http://www.theoi.com/cult/dionysostitles.html

Haides
Plouton (of Wealth).
Theon Khthonios (God of the Underworld).
Polysemantor (Ruler of Many).
Polydegmon (Host of Many).
Nekrodegmon (Receiver of the Dead).
Nekron Soter (Savior of the Dead).

http://www.theoi.com/cult/haidescult.html

Gods who are not among the 12 Olympians are a great many in number and also very important to Hellenic religion and life. It was said that, in the beginning, there was nothing but chaos, but that eventually the Universe (Earth and Sky) came into a form of order and the first Gods emerged from the chaos to establish that Order, those first Gods being the Primordials and later their children called the Titans, but even greater Order was brought by The Olympians, the Order which we still live under to this day. The Olympians are, at times, prayed to against chaotic forces or unfortunate circumstances. The Primordial realm of Tartaros was and continues to be a prison for the destructive and chaotic forces of the Universe and those who hate or fight against the Gods of Olympos. The Primordials made way to the Titans, who in turn made way to The Olympians, their own children. The Titan King of the Gods, Kronos, feared overthrow, and therefore imprisoned the children, but they were eventually freed by their youngest brother Zeus, and as punishment, they took Kronos' throne and kicked the Titan and his followers out of the heavens and imprisoned them in Tartaros for a time, some of who presumably still remain. However, it's important to remember that not all of the Titans fought against The Olympians (some even sided with them). One should also note that Kronos was eventually released after serving the sentence that was given, and later granted rule over parts of the afterlife.

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Primordial Gods
Gaia - Mother Earth or the Earth Herself.
Uranus - The Heavens, husband of Gaia.
Hemera - Goddess of the day (daytime).
Kronos - God of time and first King of the Gods before Zeus and His family.
Rhea - Titan Mother of the Gods before Hera, wife of Kronos.
Aether - God of Divine air and the upper sky, or atmosphere.
Phanes - God of creation and its continuance.
Aion - God of eternal time and the constellations.
Nyx - Goddess of night and darkness
Erebus - God of darkness.
Ananke - Goddess of necessity and destiny.
The Fates - Goddesses who spin and cut the threads of life (Clotho, Lachesis, and Atropos).
The Ourea - Divine mountains.
Pontus - The Sea, normally considered the Sea God before Poseidon or a Sea God generally.
Okeanos - Titan God of the sea and Earth's waters before Poseidon.
Tethys - Titan Goddess of Earth's fresh waters.
Nesoi - Goddesses of islands.

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The Olympian Order

Earth Gods
Gaia - Mother Earth or the Earth Herself.
The Horai - Goddesses of seasons and natural time (Eunomia, Eirene, and Dike).
Hemera - Goddess of the day (daytime).
Pan - God of woodlands and fertility.
Khloris - Goddess of flowers.
Hegemone - Goddess of plants and blooming nature.
Persephone - Goddess of spring.
Kheimon - Goddess of winter.
Adonis - God of beauty, attraction, desire, vegetation and rebirth, lover of Aphrodite.
Amphictyonis - Goddess of wine and national friendship. 
Priapus - God of garden fertility.
Triptolemus - God of farming.
Eunostus - Goddess of the flour mill.

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Sea Gods
Amphitrite - Queen of the sea and wife of Poseidon.
Aphros - God of sea foam.
Bythos - God of sea depths.
Leukothea - Goddess of the Ionian Sea.
Palaimons - A Sea God who protects sailors and fishermen.
Triton - Messenger of Poseidon.
Thaumas - God of sea wonders.
Thoosa - Goddess of swift currents.
Triteia - Daughter of Triton.

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Freshwater Gods
Akheloios - River God of central Greece.
Alpheios - River God of Arkadia.
The Potamoi - Gods of rivers and streams.
Tethys - Titan Goddess of freshwater, rivers, streams, springs, fountains and clouds.

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Sky and Wind Gods
Eos - Titan Goddess of the dawn.
Ersa - Goddess of the morning dew.
Helios - Titan Sun God.
Selene - Titan Moon Goddess.
Boreas - God of the north wind.
Circios - God of the north-northwest wind.
Argestes - God of the northwest wind.
Euros - God of the east wind.
Caicias - God of the northeast wind.
Euronotus - God of the southeast wind.
Notos - God of the south wind.
Zephyros - God of the west wind. (All together, the 4 main Wind Gods are The Anemoi).
Lips - God of the southwest wind.
Chione - Goddess of snow.
Iris - Goddess of the rainbow and messenger of Hera.
Alectrona - Goddess of the waking morning.

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Love, Sex and Fertility Gods
Eros - God of erotic love. Also a Primordial God in some sources.
Hedone - Goddess of pleasure.
Anteros - God of love returned.
Himeros - God of sexual desire.
Hedylogos - God of sweet talk and flattery.
Hermaphroditus - God of hermaphrodites and effeminate men.
Hymenaios - God of marriage and weddings.
Pothos - God of sexual longing and yearning.
(Eros, Anteros, Himeros, Hedylogos, Hermaphroditus, Hymenaios, and Pothos are also considered The Erotes).

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Healing, Medicine and Wellness Gods
Asklepios - God of medicine and physicians.
Epione - Goddess of soothing, wife of Asklepios.
Hygeia - Goddess of physical and mental health and protection, daughter of Asklepios.
Aceso - Goddess of healing processes.
Aegle - Goddess of radiant health.
Iaso - Goddess of recovery.
Panacea - Goddess of universal cures.
Paean - Physician of the Gods.

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Underworld Gods
Haides - God of the Underworld, the dead, the afterlife, and the wealth of Earth.
Persephone - Wife of Haides, Queen of the dead, Goddess of spring.
Hekate - Goddess of night, light, the moon and human spirits (ghosts). Her three forms represent the 3 realms of Her domain: Heaven, Earth and the Underworld.
Hermes - The Olympian Messenger is also the God who guides souls into the afterlife as Hermes Khthonios.
Makaria - Goddess of blessed death.
The Furies - Goddesses of vengeance and retribution. 

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Judges of the Underworld
Aiakos, Minos, Rhadamanthus.

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The Muses aka The Mousai
Calliope - Muse of epic poetry.
Clio - Muse of history.
Erato - Muse of love poetry.
Euterpe - Muse of music and song.
Melpomene - Muse of tragedy.
Polyhymnia - Muse of hymns.
Terpsichore - Muse of dance.
Thalia - Muse of comedy.
Urania - Muse of astronomy.

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The Graces
Aglaia - Goddess of brightness.
Euphrosyne - Goddess of good cheer, joy and mirth.
Thalia - Goddess of bloom.

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General Gods
Themis - Titan Goddess of Divine law.
Dike - Goddess of justice and fairness.
Leto - Titan mother of Artemis and Apollon, Goddess of childbirth.
Harmonia - Goddess of harmony.
Hebe - Cupbearer of the Gods. Goddess of youth.
Eirene - Goddess of peace.
Tykhe - Goddess of fortune and fate.
Psykhe - Goddess of the soul.
Hypnos - God of sleep.
Morpheus - God of dreams.
Nemesis - Goddess of retribution and vengeance.
Enyo - Goddess of war, second to Ares. 

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The Nymphs
Nymphs are female Divinities of nature, although they are not what we would commonly think of as a Greek Goddess because they are more residential and not as powerful as the ruling Goddesses of nature itself. Sometimes they are servants of a God, as in the case of Artemis and Her forest Nymphs. A stream or spring that runs through someone's own backyard may have its own unique Nymphs, not found anywhere else in the world. Some today might even consider the Nymphs to be Spirits and not Goddesses, and in fact, in the cases of the Dryads, who are sometimes called "Spirits of the Trees," they are considered as such. Nymphs are even known to possess their own unique names and individuality apart from their group. For instance, The Naiads (Nymphs of Freshwater) may have among them a Nymph with Her own custom name, powers, personality and story.

Nereids - Sea Nymphs.
Naiads - Freshwater Nymphs.
Oreads - Mountain Nymphs.
Dryads - Tree Nymphs or Tree Spirits.
Meliae - Ash Tree Nymphs.
Alseid - Glen and Grove Nymphs.
Auloniad - Mountain Pasture and Valley Nymphs.
Eleionomae - Nymphs of Wetlands and Marshes (part of the Naiad).
Hesperides - Nymphs of the Sunset.
Hyades - Rain Nymphs.
Lampads - Underworld Nymphs.
Napaeae - Nymphs of Wooded Valleys and Caves.
Oceanids - The Three Thousand Sea Nymphs of Oceanus and Tethys.
Pegaeae - Spring water Nymphs (part of the Naiad).
Pegasides - Nymphs of Wells and Springs (part of the Naiad).
Pleiades - Nymphs of Artemis.

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Spirits
Spirits are Divine Beings, but not as powerful as Gods. Sometimes, they are actually in service to a God, part of a God, or are an extension of that God. Other times, they are their own individuals completely, possessing their own minds and powers, and normally presiding over a universal domain.

Agathos Daimon - The Spirit of general goodness, aka the Good Spirit.
The Litai - Spirits of prayer, mainly who deliver prayers of repentance to Zeus.
Eusebeia - Spirit of piety.
Nike - Spirit of victory.
Elpis - Spirit of hope.
Nomos - Spirit of law.
Arete - Spirit of virtue.
Peitho - Spirit of seduction.
Philotes - Spirit of friendship and intercourse.
Ponos - Spirit of hard work.
Soter - Spirit of safety and protection from harm.
Kairos - Spirit of opportunity.
Gelos - Spirit of laughter.
Euthenia - Spirit of prosperity and abundance.
Pistis - Spirit of faith.
Kratos - Spirit of strength.
Aidos - Spirit of modesty, respect and reverence.
Aletheia - Spirit of truth.
Alke - Spirit of courage and prowess. 
Thanatos - Spirit of death.
Tritones - Spirits of Poseidon's retinue.

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Heroes and Heroines
Hellenic Heroes and Heroines are those who once lived among mortals and are admired and revered for their Heroic deeds and accomplishments, as well as their wisdom, strength and courage. Heroes exist on a level between Gods and mortals. Some have compared them to the idea of saints in the sense that they can intercede between mortal and God, but unlike saints, the Heroes have their own powers and individuality, and can assist the individual Hellene in daily life completely of their own accord. Heroes also don't have to have lived perfect lives to become Heroes. Anyone, even today, can achieve Hero status and make their way into the religious practices of their families and communities. Some in ancient times became Heroes through deeds, others through spectacular deaths, or they could have simply been exceptionally favored by Gods or all 3, but in any case an abundant number of them exist. While historically Hero worship was a localized tradition, we don't believe that the Divine or spiritual realm knows any bounds. The Heroes bridge a gap for us between Heaven and Earth and can help us and the Universe along our lives. Each Hellenist can also feel a special connection with certain Heroes.

Unfortunately, we probably only know a fraction of the Hellenic Heroes due to time and persecution. When Athens was divided into 10 tribes in the 6th Century BCE, they were named after 10 Heroes, picked by the Delphic Oracle from a list of 100 Heroes from Athens alone.  

Achilles
Birth and death dates are unknown; lived sometime between the beginning and end of the Trojan War Era (1260-1180 BCE). Tomb was once located near the ruins of Troy and was visited and documented by several people throughout ancient history. It has since been lost, however. Allegedly born of the Sea Nymph Thetis, and dipped in the River Styx except for His heel in order to secure His bodily strength, Achilles comes to us through the Homeric Epic known as The Iliad. He was the greatest warrior of the Greeks in the fight against the City of Troy, whose ruins now rest on the northwestern coast of Turkey. Achilles was the only one able to defeat Troy's best fighter, Hektor, which arguably secured victory in the war for the Greeks. Achilles, however, would eventually lose His own life by a simple arrow sent to His heel. Achilles can by prayed to for strength, courage and victory in battle. His patronages include warriors, soldiers, soothsayers, prophets and testifiers. Offerings include red wine.

Adrastus
Birth and death dates unknown. King of Argos and Sicyon, and Hero of Sicyon, Megara, and Colonus. He was founder of the Nemean Games and leader of the Seven Against Thebes.

Agamemnon
Birth and death dates are unknown; lived sometime between the beginning and end of the Trojan War Era (1260-1180 BCE). Homeric Hero, King of all the Greeks and supreme commander of all the Greek forces during the Trojan War. Considered a very valiant fighter whose courage and strength struck fear into Trojan ranks, Agamemnon can be prayed to for strength, courage, victory and triumph. He is the Patron of kings, heads of states and armies, and soldiers. Offerings to Him can include wine, frankincense and gold. 

Ajax
Birth and death dates are unknown; lived sometime between the beginning and end of the Trojan War Era (1260-1180 BCE). Ajax also comes to us through Homer's Epics, but there were actually two Ajaxes, those being Ajax the Great and Ajax the Lesser. Most Hellenes would probably pray to Ajax the Great. While Achilles was the best fighter, Ajax was the strongest and the most colossal in stature, and was known for His courage and mental genius on the battlefield, and focus on defensive rather than offensive tactics. Ajax can be prayed to for courage, strength, and protection and strategy against an enemy. His patronages include warriors, soldiers, and field commanders. Offerings to Him include war weapons and armor, gold and frankincense.

Alexander the Great (356 - 323 BCE)
Believed to be the son of Zeus, Alexander was born in Pella, Greece in July 356 BCE, to King Phillip II of Macedon. After the assassination of His father in 336 BCE, Alexander inherited the Crown and led the entire Greek people to conquer the mighty Persian Empire through His sheer brilliance and favor from the Gods. Part of His mission was not only to rule the world, but also bring it together with the idea that all races and religions could live together peacefully and productively. By the end of His life at the untimely age of 32 in Babylon in 323 BCE, He was King of most of the known world, with an empire stretching 3,000 miles. One of His most notable cities, Alexandria, Egypt, still retains His name to this day. Following His death, the Empire was divided up among His top Generals. Alexander can be prayed to for victory in battle, successful strategy, determination, protection, open mindedness, tolerance and glory. His patronages include Greece, Macedonia, soldiers, kings and princes, and universalists. Offerings include gold, silver, wine and frankincense. 

Antigone
Birth and death dates unknown. Antigone was a Theban and remains one of the most notable of Greek Heroines. She was best known for being the honorable daughter of the Hero Oedipus, as She stood by and helped Him in His worst physical states all the way to the end of His days, but Her honorable determination does not end there. She would eventually give Her life for it and what She believed to be right. Antigone had two brothers who died in the War of the Seven or the Seven Against Thebes. Their burials were forbidden by the tyrant Creon. However, Antigone directly defied the order, giving Her siblings a proper and honorable burial. As a result, Creon had Her sealed inside the tomb alive where She died. Antigone can be prayed to for protection and success of the family, especially involving the elderly or disabled. Her patronages include families, undertakers, caregivers, and nurses and doctors. Offerings include charity to the needy and care-giving.

Antilokhos
Birth and death dates are unknown; lived sometime between the beginning and end of the Trojan War Era (1260-1180 BCE). Son of Nestor and the Prince of Pylos in the Trojan War. Known for His beauty and skillfulness in war, He was a favorite of the Gods and a commander on the field. In the end, Antilokhos gave His own life to save His father. He remains one of the greatest unsung Heroes of the Epics. He can be prayed to for success and skillfulness in battle, protection and defense against attacks, and honor and virtue in life. His patronages include soldiers, generals, commanders, royalty, suitors, charioteers, and young asthetic men. Offerings include weapons of war, armor, helmets, gold and royal items.

Aristaios
Birth and death dates unknown. Worshiped as both a God and Hero, Aristaios was the son of Apollon and Cyrene. He is the Hero of cattle and fruit trees, and a God of hunting, husbandry and beekeeping. He can be prayed to for agricultural and natural prosperity. His patronages include farmers, hunters and beekeepers. 

Atalante (aka Atalanta)
Birth and death dates unknown. Atalanta was a great huntress of Arkadia, Greece, who was abandoned by Her father in the wild at birth because he preferred a boy. Left there to die, She was found and rescued by Artemis who sent a mother bear to nurse the child. Some versions say She was found and raised by a group of hunters, also servants of Artemis. She grew into an exceptional huntress and servant of the Goddess, and resisted the sexual advances of men until She found one whom She could not resist, named Hippomenes. All of Her suitors had to beat Her in a foot race to win Her hand. They all failed but Hippomenes, and even he was only able to do so by the help of Aphrodite's golden apples. Atalanta can be prayed to for protection and care of infants and children and nature, and for success in hunting. Her patronages include forest and wildlife preservers, environmentalists, parents and infants, hunters, foresters, and athletes (mainly foot racers). Offerings include forest incense, wild fruit or plants, and game meat. 

Bellerophon
Birth and death dates unknown. Tomb still resides in Lycia, Asia Minor, but today is empty. Bellerophon was an ancient Hero of Korinth, Greece, although His most notable achievement took place in Lycia, Asia Minor, which was the defeat and destruction of the Chimera monster, said to be half lion, half goat, and half snake. It spent its days ravaging the countryside and terrorizing the people. On the back of winged Pegasus, given to Him by Athena, He placed a clump of lead on the end of His spear and ran it down the throat of the fire-breathing monster. It melted and killed the beast. Bellerophon had been given the task unjustly by the presiding king, after the king's wife falsely accused Him of rape as revenge for refusing her sexual advances. After He beat the monster, He was exonerated, for the king believed He must have truly been sent by the Gods. Bellerophon can be prayed to for help against overwhelming challanges and enemies, for exorcisms and banishments, and the destruction of evil. His patronages include Korinth, men falsely accused of sex crimes, horsemen, priests and pious men, and travelers. Offerings include frankincense and myrrh. 

Butes
Birth and death dates unknown. Believed to have been the ancestor to the original Clan of Erekhtheus in Athens. 

Danae
Birth and death dates unknown, but had to have lived around the time of Perseus, Her son (1350-1310 BCE). She was the princess of Argos. Her father, however, feared that Her son would one day threaten his life or rule. So he had Her and the child (Perseus) sealed in a box and tossed into the sea. The two were to be a floating tomb, but the Gods saw and favored them, carrying the prisoners safely to land. Danae can be prayed to for protection of mothers, children, against hostile relatives, and for survival itself. She is the Patron of people who are unjustly imprisoned, mothers and children, and survivalists. Offerings to Her include rose and vanilla incense, and charity and service to mothers and children.

Delphos
Birth and death dates unknown. Hero who Delphi was named after.

Deukalion
Birth and death dates unknown. Believed to be the son of Prometheus, Deukalion and His wife saw the end of an entire race of humanity due to their immorality and barbarity (The Bronze Age). When Lycaon of Arkadia sacrificed a human child to Zeus, the King of the Gods was so repulsed that He sent a flood to wipe out the Age. Deukalion and His wife, however, were the only people found to be virtuous, and thus the Gods favored them with instructions to build a floating chest that would keep them above the waters. When the flood finally receded, they found themselves atop Mount Parnassus where they built a temple and reestablished the worship of the Gods and a new start for humanity. Their temple was dedicated to Themis, the Titan Goddess of Divine Law. Deukalion can be prayed to for the rescue and preservation of humans, piety, justice, righteousness, and survival ingenuity. He is the Patron of priests and pious people, sailors, architects, and survivalists. Offerings to Him include frankincense.

Erekhtheus
Birth and death dates unknown, believed to have been the Founder of the original Polis of Athens, and was worshiped on the Akropolis with Athena and Poseidon. The ruins of His temple, The Erechtheion, still stand there today. Erekhtheus can be prayed to for all things regarding the prosperity of cities and their people. His patronages include cities, Athens, and their people. Offerings to Him include royal items, gold and frankincense.

Euchidas of Plataea
Birth date unknown, died August 479 BCE. After the Greeks dealt the final and crushing defeat against the Persian Empire at the Battle of Plataea, officially ending the Persian land invasion of Greece, the Plataeans sought to purify their City's flame as they believed the invaders had polluted it. So they sent their soldier-runner by the name of Euchidas to run to Delphi and retrieve new fire from the holy flame of Apollon's temple and bring it back. He completed the painstaking mission in 24 hours, after running 113 miles, and died soon after from exhaustion. But the City's flame was replaced, thanks to Euchidas.  

Eumolpos
Birth and death dates unknown. King of Thrace and a priest of Demeter and Dionysos. 

Herakles (1303 - 1259 BCE)
One of the most universal Heroes of Greek religion, who also became and manifests as a God, Herakles is most famously known for the 12 Labors, which were near impossible feats set to redeem Him from alleged murder. Today, He is both God and Hero, and is an Averter of Evil, Protector of Mankind, and the God of Heroes. He can be prayed to for strength, courage, protection from evil, and success in missions and endeavors. He is the Patron of adventurers, redeemed offenders, and heroes. Offerings to Him include frankincense and myrrh. 

Hyacinth
Birth and death dates unknown. Hyacinth is of Spartan origin, and was a favorite youth of Apollon. After His death, Apollon resurrected and made Him immortal. It was also said that Apollon created the Hyacinth flower in His honor. Hyacinth can be prayed to for prophecy, music, hunting and sporting. His patronages include hunters, athletes, musicians and oracles. Offerings to Him include hyacinth, sunflowers, lyres, and music. 

Hydna
Lived during 480BCE. Greek Heroine known for Her amazing wimming abilities, and aided in sabotaging the Persian naval ships during the Persian invasion of Greece. Along with Her father on the night of the attack on Artemisium, She swam ten miles out to sea during the battle and cut off the morrings and anchors from the enemy vessels, causing the ships to wreck against each other. This caused the Persian fleet to be delayed long enough to allow the Greek forces to mount a nodical defense that led to their ultimate victory at the Battle of Salamis. Her father is also considered a Hero, named Scyllias. 

Jason (1287 - 1247 BCE)
Jason is most famous for being the leader of the Argonauts, retrieving the Golden Fleece, and regaining His rightful throne that had been previously taken from Him. A sailor of great distances and an overcomer of tremendous obstacles, Jason can be prayed to for success on long journeys, and the protection and recovery of rightful things. He is the Patron of sailors, royalty, adventurers and leaders. Offerings to Him include gold, frankincense, myrrh, and seafood and sea valuables. It had been once thought by modern scholars and historians that the story of Jason, as written, could not have been true because the ships of the time could not have survived those waters for that long of a journey. But in the 1980's, a writer and adventurer named Tim Severin replicated Jason's ship and successfully sailed the entire distance with his own crew, proving that it could have been done.

Kadmos (aka Cadmus)
Birth and death dates unknown. Kadmos was the king and founder of the Greek City of Thebes. Throughout His wanderings He became a destroyer of monsters and a founder of civilization. He can be prayed to for victory in battle, discovery, and protection against hostilities. He is the Patron of civilizations, cities, adventurers and wanderers, and families and siblings. Offerings to Him include city keys, gold, frankincense and myrrh.

Kodros
Birth date unknown, death occurred in 1068 BCE. He ruled Athens as its King from 1089 to 1068 BCE. During the Dorian invasion of the Peloponnesus, the Oracle of Delphi said that the only way the Dorians could be repelled from Athens is if the King of Athens died by their hands. Kodros went alone to the Dorian ranks in disguise and fought with them, knowing He would be killed. When the Dorians discovered they had killed the King, the fear of the prophecy caused them to order a retreat. After this amazing self-sacrifice, the Kingship of Athens was said to have been abolished because no one felt they could ever be as worthy as Kodros, and the office of the Archon was instead established, which was more of a Chief Magistrate. Kodros can be prayed to for bravery, nobility, devotion, and selflessness. His patronages include Athens, royalty, and people who have given all for their people, home and beliefs. Offerings to Him include royal items and frankincense.

Leonidas (540 - September 19th, 480 BCE)
More correctly known as Leonidas I, He was one of the Kings of Sparta, as Sparta had two. Leonidas is best known for His Heroic stand with the 300 Spartans at the Hot Gates against the massive Second Persian Invasion of Greece, an invasion which ultimately failed. Persia never conquered Greece. After receiving pleas for help from other Greek cities, Sparta consulted the Delphic Oracle who said that either Sparta would fall, or a great Spartan King would have to die. Leonidas interpreted this to mean that His City, and perhaps all of Greece, would fall, unless He was willing to lay down His own life. With a small force of 300 Spartans and 900 helots, and other soldiers from Greek cities, He marched an army of around 7,000 north to Thermopylae, where they would block the only entrance into Greece. In the narrow passage, numbers would not matter, not even the 70,000 to 300,000 men the Persians used to assault the opening. For 7 days, the Spartans and their allies beat back the enemy. The only way the Persians were able to push through the pass was by a Greek traitor who told them of a path that led behind the Greek lines. Learning of this, Leonidas sent everyone on retreat except for Him and His 300. The 300 Spartans remained to protect their retreating allies. The 300 were surrounded in the end and all of them were killed, along with Leonidas, going down fighting.  Leonidas represents the undying life of ancient Hellas. He can be prayed to for battle strategy, strength, courage, fortitude, justice, victory, and protection against hostilities. He is the Patron of soldiers, generals, strategists, kings, unifiers, and self-sacrifice. Offerings to Him include royal garments, ancient war weaponry and armor, and frankincense.

Lykourgos of Sparta
Lived and died around 820 BCE. The legendary lawgiver of Sparta, whose reforms and virutes made the Spartan people famous for what they are today. Even the Oracle of Delphi called His laws excellent. After consulting the Oracle, Lykourgos is no longer found in history, leading some to believe that He did not return to Sparta so that His people would forever be bound to uphold His laws, as they had sworn an oath to do until He returned from Delphi. He can be prayed to for a virtuous and devoted life. His patronages include Sparta, soldiers, and honorable men. Offerings include frankincense and state items of Sparta.

Meleagros
Aka Meleager, birth and death dates unknown. Known as an Argonaut and the co-killer of the infamous Calydonian Boar (His partner being Atalanta), He is a Hero of Aetolia. A man of great honor, He also defended Atalanta from centaurs who tried to rape Her by killing them as well. Meleagros can be prayed to for hunting, successful endeavors, and protection against sexual assault. His patronages include hunters, sailors, and people (specifically women) who were or could be victims of sexual assault. Offerings to Him include game meat, bows and arrows, seafood, gold, and frankincense.

Nausicca
Birth and death dates unknown, but had to have lived around the time of Odysseus' Odyssey journey, 1160 BCE. She was a princess in the land of Phaeacia and appears in Homer's Odyssey as a savior and caretaker of Odysseus as He washes up on Her shores, being guided to do so by Athena. Had She not cared of Him, he may have died on the beach. Nausicca is the Patron of poor people, the less fortunate, and stranded travelers. Offerings to Her include beautiful garments, frankincense and roses.

Neoptolemos
Birth and death dates unknown. Son of Achilles. 

Oedipus
Birth and death dates unknown. Oedipus of Thebes was best known for outsmarting the infamous Sphinx by deciphering her riddle that no one else could, thus liberating the people of the City from her clutches. However, because of His ill-temper and hastiness, He unknowingly killed His father in a fit of rage and married the former queen of the dead monarch, not realizing it was His own mother, a union that would lead to His demise. His Heroism, and also His tragedy, are lessons for us all to be on guard against our emotions, and to possess fortitude, lest our lives slip away before we know it. Oedipus can be prayed to for wit, protection against anger and hastiness, and against perverted sexuality. He is the Patron of adventurers, travelers, code breakers, leaders and liberators, and divorced people. Offerings to Him include incense of amber, sandalwood or lavender.

Odysseus
Birth and death dates are unknown; lived sometime between the beginning and end of the Trojan War Era and the tale of The Odyssey (1260-1180 and 1170 BCE). Odysseus is the main feature of The Odyssey. He was King of Ithaca and one of the greatest Heroes of the Trojan War, for it was He who devised the legendary Trojan Horse that allowed the Greeks to infiltrate the Trojan defenses and win the war. One His way home, He became a man of great mental skill and accomplishment, and also humility, as He endured countless obstacles, traps, monsters and general hardships, eventually making His way home after a decade. Odysseus can be prayed to for ingenuity, determination, hope and liberation, and is the Patron of sailors, sea captains, soldiers, architects, royalty, husbands and fathers. Offerings to Him can include seafood, horse figurines, and royal garments. 

Pandion
Birth and death dates unknown. Hero of Attika and early King of Athens.

Perikles of Athens
495 - 429 BCE. Perikles was an Athenain Statesman, patriot, General, public speaker, architect and an extremely pious man, known notably for His funeral Oration (which is considered the ancient version of the Gettysburg Address), growing Athens and the Delian League into an Empire, and starting the construction of the Parthenon. He led Athens through some of its most glorious times and also the toughest wars of its life, that of the Greco-Persian Wars and the Peloponnesian War. During the latter, a great plague struck Athens, however, costing them the war and eventually taking the life of Perikles Himself. Perikles can be prayed to for artistic inspiration and wisdom regarding matters of State. He is the Patron of Athens, governmental and social leaders, public speakers, military leaders, soldiers, artists and architects. Offerings to Him include State items, art, gold, wine, and frankincense.

Penelope
Birth and death dates are unknown; lived sometime between the beginning and end of the Trojan War Era and the tale of The Odyssey (1260-1180 and 1170 BCE). Penelope was the wife of Odysseus and Queen of Ithaca. Combined with the length of the Trojan War, She waited for Her husband faithfully for 20 years, despite not knowing if He was alive and several suitors trying to win Her hand and kingdom. Her will paid off in the end. Penelope can be prayed to for fortitude, determination, hope, steadfastness, and strength, and is the Patron of women, wives, queens, mothers and true love. Offerings to Her include royal garments, wine, and incense of amber and rose.

Perseus (1350 - 1310 BCE)
Perseus was the slayer of the Gorgon monster Medusa. With favor from the Gods, He defeated the creature who could turn anything to stone with her eyes. Before Him, no one else had been able to do it. Many had died at her hands. Perseus can be prayed to for Divine favor and intercession, strength, courage, ingenuity and battle strategy. He is the patron of founders of civilizations, Heroes and diviners. Offerings to Him include frankincense and myrrh. 

Phutalos
Birth and death dates unknown. King of Attika, Hero of Elusis who was beloved of Demeter for His hospitality toward Her. 

Phylacus
Birth and death dates unknown. One of the 4 Delphic Heroes, whose Spirit was said to have terrified the Gaulish forces who attacked Delphi. The invasion was eventually completely defeated by the Greeks. 

Theseus (1291 - 1233 BCE)
Theseus was born heir to two royal houses, Troezen and Athens, the latter of which He became King. He was one of the most accomplished of Heroes who liberated Greek lands of criminals, faced off with the tyrant Minos by defeating the Minotaur, united the lands of Attika, beat back the Amazon invasion, and established notable religious festivals and observances still celebrated today. He is also considered the ancient Father of democracy. Theseus can be prayed to for protection against crime, criminals and hostile beings, and for courage, faith, fortitude, dedication, victory, unity and piety, and is the Patron of royalty, democracy, heads of state, politicians, priests and pious people, Hellenic worshipers, police officers, judicial officials, and travelers. Offerings to Him include state currency, royal garments, wine, and frankincense. 

Trophonios
Birth and death dates unknown. Hero of Boeotia who helped build the Temple of Apollon at Delphi and the Treasury of Hyrieus, which He eventually looted for unknown reasons, escaping all traps the king set up. The Cavern where His body rested was the Cave of His Oracle down to the time of Pausanias. His worship was established in Livadeia, Boeotia after the people were ravaged by a plague, and the Oracle of Delphi concluded that the plague was the result of an angry unvenerated Hero, and to find His Cave and worship Him to vanquish the pandemic. Eventually a shepherd found the dwelling by following a swarm of bees and the disease left the City. Trophonios can be prayed to for good health, protection against disease, healing, escaping hard situations, and prophecy. He is the Patron of Boeotia, architects, beekeepers, doctors, medicine, and oracles. Offerings to Him include honey, gold and silver. 

Vlassis Rassias of Athens (April 22nd, 1959 - July 7th, 2019)
Born in Christian dominated Greece, Vlassis became a notable defender of ancient Greek religion and a co-founder and representative of the Supreme Council of Ethnic Hellenes, whose mission is to restore the traditional ways of Hellas. Vlassis began His mission in 1976 after witnessing a Christian monk smash apart the statue of Zeus outside the Ministry of Education. Then began His rebuking of Christianity and allegiance to the old Gods. He dedicated His life to the practice, representation, and defense of the traditional Hellenic identity, and was the author of over 20 books, numerous articles and hundreds of speeches. He was a wonderful leader who aided greatly in bringing ancient Greek religion back into world view and legitimacy. Thanks to the efforts of the Supreme Council, the Greek government eventually recognized ancient Greek religion once again in its country.

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Various Modern Heroes and Heroines of America and Illinois

George Washington
Thomas Jefferson
John Adams
Alexander Hamilton
James Madison
Natahanael Greene
Sybil Ludington
Anna Strong
Abraham Woodhull
Casimir Pulaski (Illinois)
Lewis and Clark
Sacagawea
Elizabeth Winters (Illinois)
Elizabeth Armstrong (Illinois)
Black Hawk (Illinois)
Francis Scott Key
Andrew Jackson
Sam Houston
Davy Crockett
William Travis
Abraham Lincoln
U.S. Grant
Rosa Parks
Martin Luther King
John F. Kennedy
Ruth Bader
Colin Powell
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Deified Mortals
Deified Mortals were those who were born human and became Gods after death. Someone can be Deified either by the Gods, a ruling King, or a community. 

Aiolos
A King of Thessaly who was made Keeper of the Winds by Zeus.

Alexander the Great (356-323 BCE)
Macedonian/Greek conqueror of the known world. 

Glaukos
Mortal fisherman who became a Sea God. 

Hemithea and Parthenos
Princesses of Naxos, made Goddesses by Apollon after being forced to leap into the sea to escape their abusive father. 

Hephaiston (356-324 BCE)
Deified by Alexander. Nobleman and 2nd in command general of Alexander's army, and Alexander's most loved friend.

Homer (8th Century BCE)
Author of The Iliad and The Odyssey, helped bring Greece out of the Dark Age.

Kastor and Polydeukes
Known together as The Dioskouroi, the Divine Star Twins who were born as mortal princes and protect guests, travelers and preside over horsemanship. 

Oreithyia
Mortal princess made the Goddess of cold mountain wind by Boreas. 

Phylonoe
Spartan maiden made a Goddess or demigoddess by Artemis. Her name means Mind Of The People.

Pythagoras of Samos (570-495 BCE)
Ancient philosopher and founder of Pythagoreanism. 

Sappho of Lesbos (630 - 570 BCE) Life long devotee of Aphrodite. According to Plato, the 10th Muse.

Semele - Mother of Dionysos. 

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The Ancestors
We all have ancestors, those who lived before us and made the ways for our own lives today. But something people may not know is that they actually have two sets of Ancestors, those being ancient and modern. Ancient ancestors are those who share a kinship with us through things like religion or culture. Modern ancestors are those we share bloodlines with, such as immediate or distant family members. Whoever one's ancestors are, they should always include them in their daily, general rites. 

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The Realms

Earth
The world in which we, and all life we know, live.

Heaven
The outer portions of the Universe, typically beyond our physical reach.

Mount Olympos
Mount Olympos, aka Olympus in Latin, is the home of the Dodekatheon (the Twelve Gods). In ancient Greece, mountains from Thessaly to Lesbos were named after it, but Homer describes it as a place where there is no wind, rain or snow, which would mean it is found nowhere on Earth. Rather, it resides somewhere in the Heavens. 

The Underworld
The Underworld is the realm through which the dead travel and are judged, after being ferried there by Charon, the Boatman. The Dialogue of Er in Plato gives a detailed description of an afterlife journey by a man who had a near death experience. The Underworld is divided by 5 rivers, those being Acheron (River of Woe), Cocytus (River of Lamentation), Phlegethon (River of Fire), Styx (River of Oaths), and Lethe (River of Forgetfulness). Some souls of the dead remain in the Underworld, while others travel to further realms, even into reincarnation. 

Isle of the Blessed
Sometimes also called Elysium, the Isle of the Blessed is the heaven of the afterlife, originally reserved for Heroes, but over time became a place of rest and eternal happiness for anyone of virtue and goodness. As found in the writings of Plato, "The one who has lived justly and piously makes their home on the Isle of Blessed, in complete happiness and beyond the reaches of evil."

Tartaros
Tartartos, aka Tartarus in Latin, is the realm beneath the Underworld, reserved for those of evil or wretched deeds in life. It would be the ancient Greek version of hell. However, imprisonment there is usually not permanent. The prisoner receives a sentence or penalty to be served and is then released into another realm or manifestation. In ancient Greek religion, people are also not given an afterlife based on their beliefs or lack thereof, but rather on their actions during their lifetime. An exceptionally good person could be given the Isle of the Blessed even if they didn't believe in the Greek Gods, whereas it's entirely possible for a Hellenist to be sent to Tartaros.

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How To Pray
Hellenic prayer takes place in different levels of structure and sometimes posture. Formally, prayer takes in three verbal stages. The calling of the God or Higher Power by name and titles, a statement of devotion or past service, and a request or whatever is left of the petitioner's prayer. Example: Holy Athena, Aegis Bearing daughter of Zeus, remember my past sacrifices and hear my prayer, give me wisdom and strength in my coming endeavor. Posture is also notable. When praying to Sky Gods, arms are outstretched with the palms facing upward. When praying to Earth Gods, arms are outstretched with palms facing downward. When praying to Sea or Water Gods, arms are outstretched with palms facing out toward the body of water. However, in general prayers, or if praying to multiple Gods at once, we normally just raise our hands toward the sky or upward. 

How To Give Offering/Sacrifice
Offering and sacrifice in Hellenism is typically based on reciprocity. It is impious to approach the Gods without having a gift of some sort. Even if it's something as simple as incense burned or a libation poured out onto the ground or altar, it shows respect and honor, that we are willing to give something to the Gods in return for their attention and favor. An exception is made if someone is in a position where they need a God and are unable at that particular time to give something, but after that, one should later give an offering to that God or Higher Being in return. It's also true that we give to the Gods just to show our love and devotion and not necessarily because we want or need something. Incense and libation are among the most common because they are abundant and easy to obtain. Other offerings, such as food, should be burned, left in a respectful place in nature such as the precinct of the Deity, or buried (especially if to the Underworld Gods). Valuables given such as jewelry or statues, should be stored in a treasury specifically dedicated to that purpose. 

Oracles and Seers
In ancient Greece, it was customary for communities to have their own Seers, and for temples, especially those dedicated to prophecy and Divine communication, to have Oracles that would counsel the people on their lives and world affairs based on the answers the Gods or God of the temple had given to the Oracle. It should be noted, however, that a Seer and an Oracle were not the same thing. Seers were more localized and abundant for hire and travel, readily available in some cases. Seers often specialized in recognizing and interpreting signs in nature and would advise people, families and leaders based on those signs. For instance, examining the entrails of animals or observing animal movement. Many Seers became so through family lineage, but it was also an art that could conceivably be learned by anyone. While an Oracle was more specialized in the art of communication directly with Gods and remained in certain locations where they held the greatest of divinatory influences, for example, the Oracle of Delphi (the most revered and trusted Oracle in the entire ancient Greek world). An Oracle did not have to examine anything around them nor work to interpret. In fact, people were hired to interpret the Oracle at times, and they could answer more than yes or no questions, unlike a Seer. The Gods spoke to them directly. Oracles were at the top of the hierarchy of ancient Greek divination.

Piety
Piety in thought, action and deed is central to a Hellenic life. The ancient Greeks took their religion and their Gods very seriously. They did not do anything to intentionally make an affront to them, nor did they consider themselves to be on equal footing with the Gods, nor did they try in any way to control or coerce the Gods, nor did they make fun of the Gods. Yes, there were playwrights who did, but they were a few individuals, and some, such as Euripides, were accused of heresy and spent their final years in exile. Piety in a Hellenic worldview is found in always having humility in yourself, and in always having reverence and respect for the Higher Powers. It is also found in practicing Hellenic religion either in the way the ancients would have, or in a Hellenic format. 

Notes - While this beginning lesson has been quite extensive, it is still just that, a beginning. A Hellene should never tire of learning from all the legitimate books and sources they can find.